Human Electric Trike Thesis

Design of an electrically assisted human powered trike

Archive for the ‘Trikes’ Category

Pedal powered and elecrically assisted trikes

Visited Runabout Cycles

Posted by Bob Dold on Monday, June 19, 2006 8:19 PM

Today I made a visit to Runabout Cycles in Florence MA (Northampton) and spoke with Josh Kerson , the founder of the electric trike company. Josh mentioned he has been working on the human electric hybrid idea for about 5 years, has made several prototypes, and is currently in limited production of their  electrically assisted trike.

Production Runabout cycle:

Josh had two assembled trikes on hand, the prototype fully suspended unit that weighed in around 250#, and the new production model that weighed about half of the prototype. The production unit did away with the rear suspension to save weight and used  a 7 pound PMG 080 motor instead of the 25 pound eTek motor on the prototype. The production unit also looked to have smaller tubing that the ultra beefy prototype unit. I took a quick ride in the orange production unit in the parking lot and was very impressed with the smooth steering and quiet electric drive system. The unit I rode had a 19:1 gear reduction through a 2 stage chain reduction drive system with a freewheel to allow coasting and pedaling when the electric power is not used. Josh mentioned the gear reduction was necessary to get the high efficiency out of the PMG 080 motor, the prototype unit used a single stage gear reduction with the slower, more powerful, eTek motor.

Prototype Runabout cycle:

Josh indicated he designed the steering linkage to allow more precise control at higher speeds by increasing the steering handle throw in relation to the wheel movement. Compared to my Sun EZ-TAD’s rather twitchy steering, the Runabout cycle’s design was much easier to control at speed. The stock production unit is designed to top out at 20 MPH to comply with federal law for assisted bikes, although Josh mentioned the motor is capable of more. The design goal was to have enough power to cruise up hills at 20 MPH, something that can bring a lot of electric bikes to a halt. The prototype unit Josh was riding had been ridden all the way to the top of Mt. Washington, demonstrating the hill climbing capabilities of the trike.

Josh was very helpful in explaining the current market for human electric hybrids – because of their electric motors they are a little too complicated for a bike dealer to sell and service, eliminating a possible retail outlet for the bikes. Because of the pedals and electric drive they are not a natural sell for a motorcycle or automotive dealer. The best outlet for the trikes appear to be a network of electric bike dealers that currently stand at about 50 strong nationwide.  Josh mentioned he was hoping to market the Runabout cycle with a few of these retailers who will already have some experience dealing with the electric drive train. He mentioned that most commercial eBikes and conversion kits were designed for light flatland use – top speeds of about 15 MPH and max motor power of about 750 watts.

The standard runabout cycle comes with two 30 amp-hour 12V  lead acid batteries, which are good for about  40 miles range and 500 discharge cycles. The cycle comes with a "Drain Brain" which tracks the electrical usage, speed, miles traveled, and acts as sort of a ‘gas’ gauge for the batteries. Runabout is also a distributor for lithium -ion batteries which give the same capacity at half the weight and are good for 1700 cycles. Lithium-ion batteries give a relatively constant output until they are drained – unlike lead acid which slowly reduce output as they discharge. The cycle can be upgraded to lithium-ion for about $1000 more than the base cycle’s $4700 price. In addition to the trikes, Runabout also does custom electric conversions for bikes, Josh showed a couple of conversions using powered cranks with e PMG motor and lithium-ion batteries.

Recumbent conversion:

Josh spent about an hour discussing the trike and his company and was very helpful in answering questions and providing lots of detail on his trikes and the thought that went into them. He offered to answer any questions I might have in the future and even offered to have me take a longer test ride when I get a chance.

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TWIKE.us

Posted by Bob Dold on Thursday, June 15, 2006 9:40 AM

Small 3 wheel electric car: TWIKE.us

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Latest Greenspeed News

Posted by Bob Dold on Friday, June 9, 2006 7:38 AM

Link to Greenspeed Trikes newsleteer: Latest Greenspeed News

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Thoughts and Ideas over building a trike

Posted by Bob Dold on Monday, June 5, 2006 12:22 PM

Thoughts and Ideas over building a trike

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Tulpa – Homebuilt Full Suspension Trike

Posted by Bob Dold on Saturday, June 3, 2006 11:08 PM

http://pictures.care2.com/view/1/174801833/0

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BikeEV

Posted by Bob Dold on Saturday, June 3, 2006 10:50 PM

BikeEV Specifications

The following list of specs is primarily from my memory; errors and omissions will be corrected as they are discovered!

Motor:

24V permanent magnet DC (PMDC), 1HP with integral 11:1 right-angle reduction gearbox (330RPM max. at output shaft). Sourced from EMD (Electric Motor Developments) in Essex, UK. (approx. 23lbs)
Controller:
Made by Curtis (1206?), purchased rebuilt from Test Engineering with custom 80A current limit to protect the motor.
Batteries:
2 Hawker Genesis 12V 26Ah sealed AGM lead-acid batteries, wired as a 24V pack.
Powertrain:
Parallel human/electric hybrid. The rear wheel is driven by a 7-speed Sachs internal hub, which is in turn chain-driven from the motor output shaft (at a 1:1 ratio?). The motor output shaft can be driven directly by the electric motor as well as by the pedals, via a 7-speed cassette. A freewheel between the 7-speed cassette and the motor output shaft allow the pedals to remain stationary even while the motor is running.

Performance:

Top speed:

50kph (level ground, electric only)
60kph (electric + pedal assist).
Range:
30km to 80% DOD (real-world commute with hills at full speed with occasional pedal-assist).
Cost:
Bike (including Zipper fairing and Sachs hub): C$2500
Electric drive components: C$500
Weight:
approx. 100lbs total (23 motor + 29 bike + 23/battery + misc.)

The adapter and drive sprocket are now mounted on the output shaft, and the 7-speed cassette/freewheel threaded onto it. Unfortunately, I neglected to get a photo of the adapter on its own first. The output shaft has also been shortened at this point.

One of the two Hawker Genesis batteries is visible, suspended from the seat frame. The 12V batteries are wired in series to supply the 24V motor.

From the run of the drive chain, it is evident that the drive and driven sprockets are about the same size (24T, IIRC). The largest sprocket on the cassette driven by the pedals is a few teeth bigger (26T, again IIRC). The drive ratio from the motor back was chosen to allow a top speed of about 60kph, and the ratio from the pedals to allow a cyclist to provide some degree of pedal assist at all speeds.

http://www.geocities.com/Yosemite/Gorge/9546/bikev/bikev.htm

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Flevobike Versatile

Posted by Bob Dold on Saturday, June 3, 2006 10:19 PM

"This is the first time that I’ve been able to take a really close look at the Flevobike Versatile velomobile.  This is a very impressive machine.  The interior looks more like a Mercedes Benz than a velomobile and the numerous custom parts are very well designed and well made.  The handling and suspension are outstanding and I was very impressed with the mesh seat.  Unfortunately all of this comes at a very high price.  7800€ is a lot of cash for a velomobile no matter how nice it is.  http://www.flevobike.nl"

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WAW

Posted by Bob Dold on Saturday, June 3, 2006 10:10 PM

Length 2,8m
Body length without nose and tail : approx. 1,8m
Length without nose and tail incl cranck axle and wheel holders 2,1m
Hight 0,9m
Height from ground to bottom 0,1m
Track width 0,75m
Body width 0,70m
Wheel base 1,30m

Steering
Two steering wheels at the front, one driven rear wheel.

Front wheels : hard suspension (steel spring with friction damping in Aluminium McPherson; from Velomobiel.nl)
tyres : maxium 40-406 (20"x1,5)
brakes: drum brakes, separately used from each other

Rear wheel : no suspension
tyres : maximum 60-559 (26"x2,35)
brakes : none
Steering is done by moving two handles next to the body.

Turn radius : approx. 8m

All existing gearing systems kan be implemented in the WAW.

Standard is a derailleur system : three sprocket wheels at the front (32-42-52 tooth), nine sprocket wheels at the back (11-12-14-16-18-21-24-28). Operating the gears goes with a DeoreLX dual controll handle. In combination with a ‘top normal’ derailleur is this system a comfort for changing gears.

Rohloff hub gear, Schlumpf Mountaindrive or SRAM 3×9 can be implemented without any problem.

The standard cranck length is 170mm, smaller crancks make pedalling faster (happy knees !) and more space for knees and feet.

Materials ::
The whole self-supporting structure is made from a mix of carbon and aramide fibrel with epoxy resin, approved for aviation industry.
The outer side is a very though epoxy coating , avoiding deep scratches and simplifying reparations.

Most of the mechanical parts are in aluminium.

All WAWs are paint-sprayed; colours can be choosen from these colour schemes :
-RAL
-MOTIP (including metallic colours). In fact; most car colours can be chosen.

For a supplement in price WAWs can be paint-sprayed with a SIKKENS- paint, also with pearl effect.

In each WAW a hood, inclusive visor, is included. The hood protects you from rain. Via the necessary ventilation cracks small raindrops can enter anyway. When standing still, there is no ventilation; opening the visor avoids it from steaming. Also when driving, the visor can be opened when visibility decreases.

Obviously, driving without hood is also possible; or the hood hood can be attached on top of the body. Test prove that this does not decrease speed or visibility.

Efficiency/Speed:
Approx. 50 km/h for a 250 W capacity. Of course depending on the model (e.g. with or without hood), type of tyres etc.

(for your comparison : a sporty bike for daily use goes 33 km/h, a racing bike goes 37,5km/h).
On the website of Kreuzotter simulations can be made for different user conditions (uphill, wind,…). The WAW has the characteritics of a "streamlined trike".

Weight: in between 24 and 35 kg, depending on the model.

For use in hilly regions a BionX electric power assistance can be built in.

Lenght of the drivers:
length between approx. 1m60 and 1m90. The critical places are around the feet and the knees. A lot of space can be won with the use of short crancks (e.g. 125mm instead of 170)
With 170 crancks is shoe size 45 maximum .

Width : The WAW is rather small, critical places are between the wheel wells and shoulder width. In between the wheel wells come the thighs, here is 36 cm free space. Perfect shoulder width is 48cm.

http://fietser.be/fietser.htm

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go one

Posted by Bob Dold on Saturday, June 3, 2006 10:02 PM

First Carbon Chassis Velocipede
This is the first human powered vehicle (HPV) to have a carbon fiber monocoque chassis, the same material found in the fastest high-performance Formula 1 automobiles, making it the worlds most advanced three-wheeled velomobile. Designed by world-renowned designer Michael Goretzky, the customized vehicle combines the low-impact exercise benefits of a recumbent bicycle with the stability of a three-wheeled cruiser and the aerodynamics of a concept automobile. Carbon fiber provides the chassis with an exceptional strength-to-weight ratio, making the chassis as strong as the steel used in modern automobiles at a fraction of the weight. At a mere 60 lbs., the velo weighs approximately 1/50th of a combustion or hybrid-electric automobile, yet n ever needs to be refueled. Unlike traditional three-wheeled vehicles, the low profile tadpole design has two forward 20" wheels that allow for sharp, tight turning at higher speeds that would normally tip a traditional three-wheeler. The cockpit is a slipstream airfoil shape that practically eliminates drag and, coupled with full independent suspension, front shock absorbers, and rear tunable damping, ensures smooth and consistent speeds. The interior has a recumbent seat with variable longitudinal pedal geometry for a customized fit that maximizes comfort and pedal power efficiency. A Shimano derailleur and SRAM Gripshift Rocket shifter on the hand control allows smooth, shudder-free shifting. The velomobile has a headlight, tail light, a nd turn signals powered by a rechargeable battery. *For Personalized Service on this item call 1-800-227-3528 between 8 a.m. and 12 p.m. Eastern time, and our Product Specialists will gladly answer all questions and provide additional service information about the First Carbon Chassis Velocipede, including taking your measurements so the Velocipede can be custom made to fit. Includes white glove delivery. Please note that special conditions and guarantee limitations apply to this product. 28 1/2" H x 30" W x 104 1/2" L. Wheel base is 53". (60 lbs.)

Item 10942  ……………… $13,999.95

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City-el

Posted by Bob Dold on Saturday, June 3, 2006 9:55 PM

Overview:

Number of seats

1+1

Maximum speed

50

km/h

32

mph
Range

30-50

km

19-32

miles
Price approx..

12

TDM

9000

dollars

Technical details:

Road performances and consumption:

Consumption

4-10

kWh/100 km
Max. climbing performance

16

%

Battery:

Number of batteries

3

Piece
Total voltage

36

V
Capacity [ ah ]

90/100

Ah C5
Battery manufacturer 90Ah

Yuasa

Trojan 30XHS AP
Battery manufacturer 100Ah

Versch.

Motor:

Rated output

2,5

KW S2 3.35 hp
Maximum performance

3,5

KW 4.69 hp
Rated voltage

36

V
Rated current

90

A
Max. torque approx..

70

Nm

 51

Ft-lbs
Type

GS/Comp

Manufacturer

Thrige titan

Type

TTL 140B

Cooling

Air

Motor control:

Type

Pulse Width

Modulation
Rated voltage

36

V
Rated current

275

A
Working frequency

15

KHz
Manufacturer

Curtis

Type

1204X

Power transmission:

Number of transmission steps

1

Speed ratio approx..

7,2:1

Transfer

Poly V belt

Battery charger

Type
Rated output W
Charging time to 75 %

3

Std
Charging time to 100 %

8-9

Std

Mass and weights:

Length

2741

mm

9

Ft
Width

1060

mm

42

in
Height (hood closed)

1260

mm

49.61

in
Height (hood open)

2380

mm

94

in
Wheel base

1810

mm

71

in
Track width

930

mm

36.61

in
Turning circle

8550

mm

28

ft
Ground Clearance

120

mm

4.72

inches
Unloaded weight

290

Kg

640

lbs
Additional load

110

Kg

242

lbs
Admissible total weight

400

Kg

882

lbs

Tire:

Type

80/70 -16

Manufacturer

Continental

Brakes:

Type

3

Drum
Operation

Hydraulically

Brake circuits

2

in front/in the back

Heating:

Type

Electrical

Amount of heat

400+400

W
Blower

2

Levels

Configuration:

  • Heater/Defroster
  • Glass sliding roof
  • Two outside mirrors
  • H4 55/60W main headlight
  • Windshield wiper and washer

Safety configuration:

  • Three point inertia reel belt
  • Roll bar
  • Laminated glass windshield
  • Safety glass side windows
  • Energy absorbing body

Options:

  • Radio console
  • Loudspeaker installation console for roll bars
  • Lap belt for protecting a child seat
  • H-belt for child of 3-9 years + backrest for child
  • Ashtray (Pfui!)
  • Battery heating
  • Soil mat

Body:

Plastic sandwich structure self-supporting

PURELY foam with PMMA+ABS bowl

City-El Driving resistances


Marco Reichel, a fellow " el " driver, has worked out a program for driving resistances, here the results.

Input data:

Mass 400 kg
Rolling friction number: 0,01
Air resistance number: 0,3
Frontal Area: 1 m²
Wheel diameter: 0,52 m

Required power at the wheel in Watts as a function of speed with different gradients

km/h

Ebene

5 %

10%

15%

20%

10

113

658

1203

1748

2293

20

248

1338

2428

3518

4608

30

428

2063

3698

5333

6968

40

675

2855

5035

7215

9395

50

1013

3738

6463

9188

11913

60

1462

4732

8002

11272

14542

70

2046

5861

9676

13491

17306

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